心理學筆記

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perception
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mind’s_eye
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conscious
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognition
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attention
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personality_psychology
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depth_psychology
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_behavior
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_functions
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gestalt_psychology
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illusory_contours
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_illusion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mach_bands
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grid_illusion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lateral_inhibition
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illusion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penrose_triangle
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impossible_object
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multistable_perception
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_illusion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_constancy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penrose_tiling
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interference_theory
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suspense
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Working_memory
http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Monocular_rivalry
http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Binocular_rivalry
http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Neural_correlates_of_consciousness
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flow_(psychology)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-consciousness
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-awareness
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paranoia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lose_confidence
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Awareness
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positive_psychology
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_facilitation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Introvert
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_illness
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraphrenia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bipolar_disorder
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychotic_depression
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychiatry
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diathesis-stress_model
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biopsychosocial
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraphrenia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology_of_art
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twin_studies
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychiatric_genetics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_illness
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizophrenia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychodynamics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychological_energy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversion_disorder

心智功能(mental function)
行為科學Behavioral Science
神經過程﹝neurological process﹞
深層心理學(Depth Psychology)
「潛意識」(unconscious mind)
實證的方法(empirical method)
相關關係(correlational relationship)
社會心理性變項(psychosocial variable)
演繹法(Deductive Method)
歸納推理( inductive reasoning)
人文科學(Humanities)
認知科學 (Cognitive Science)
感官訊息(sensory information)
定量定律(quantitative law)
韋伯-菲克納定律(Weber – Fechner Law)
物體刺激(physical stimuli)
感受效果perceptual effect
全方位的治療(Holistic Approach)
跨學科的研究 interdisciplinary study
學習科學(Learning science)
現象意識(phenomenal consciousness)
視覺心像(visual mental imagery)
新皮質(neocortex)
視丘(thalamus)
習得(acquisition)
學習(learning)
自我覺察理論(self-awareness theory)
生理心理學(Biological Psychology)
發展心理學(Developmental Psychology)
認知心理學(Cognitive Psychology)
訊息處理理論(Information Processing Theory)
主觀經驗(Subjective Experience)
概括詞(umbrella term)
「回應性」(Responsiveness)
失去定向感(disorientation)
譫妄(Delirium)
完形學派(Gestaltism)
結構主義(Structuralism)
具體化(Reification)
多型態(Multi Stability)
不變性(invariance)
「錯覺輪廓」(illusory contour)
主觀輪廓(subjective contour)
大小恆常性(size constancy)
錯覺輪廓(illusory contour)
感覺適應(sensory adaptation)
混色(color mixture)
補色(complementary color)
後像(afterimage)
空間知覺(space perception)
形象與背景(figure and ground)
不合理圖形(impossible figure)
視錯覺(visual illusion)
認知錯覺(Cognitive Illusions)
馬赫帶(Mach bands)
知覺恆常性(perceptual constancy)
深度知覺(depth perception)
單眼深度線索(monocular depth cues)
雙眼深度線索(binocular depth cues)
側抑制作用(lateral inhibition)
視網膜(retina)
神經元(neuron)
馬赫帶效應(Mach Band Effect)
赫曼方格(Hermann grid)
閃爍方格(Scintillating Grid)
接受域(receptive field)
感官刺激理論(Sensory Stimulation Theory)
觸發模型(firing pattern)
光感受器(photoreceptors)
組織原則(Organizational Principles)
移動知覺(motion perception)
無意識推論(Unconscious Inferences)
扭曲錯覺Distorting illusion
悖論圖(Paradox illusion)
「組織性知覺」multistable perception
潘洛斯三角形(Penrose triangle)
初級視覺皮質(primary visual cortex)
顏色拮抗作用(color opponency)
剪影錯視(silhouette illusion)
雙穩態圖(bistable)
「雙重知覺」(bistable perception)
雙眼競爭(binocular rivalry)
「施帕音」(Shepard tone)
正弦波(sine waves)
壓抑(repression)
潛抑作用(Repression)
智性化(intellectualization)
物理數學 Mathematical Physics
「潘洛斯鋪磚」(Penrose Tiling)
視知覺(visual perception)
雙穩態(bistable)
多穩態(multi-stable)
後向對比遮蔽(metacontrast masking)
後向視覺遮蔽(backward visual masking)
視覺資訊處理(Visual Information Processing)
現象經驗(phenomenal experience)
連續閃動抑制(Continuous Flash Suppression)
視覺意識缺乏(failures of visual awareness)
意識經驗(conscious experience)
主觀主義的取向(Subjectivist Approach)
意識的神經基礎(neural correlates of consciousness, NCC)
角錐形神經細胞(pyramidal neurons)
新皮質(neocortex)
有意識的覺醒(conscious wakefulness)
變態心理學(abnormal psychology)
干擾理論(Interference Theory)
逆向干擾(retroactive interference)
順向干擾(Proactive interference)
前額葉皮質區(Prefrontal Cortex)
腹側前額葉皮質區(ventrolateral prefrontal cortex)
生物心理學(Biological Psychology)
認知的反應和反省(cognitive reaction and reflection)
封閉律 Law of Closure
相似律 Law of Similarity
接近律 Law of Proximity
Law of Symmetry
連續律 Law of Continuity
Law of Common Fate
感覺記憶(sensory memory)
影像記憶(iconic memory)
回聲記憶(echonic memory)
感覺記錄元(sensory register)
編碼(encoding)
儲存(storage)
工作記憶(working memory)
額葉皮質(Frontal cortex)
心流經驗(Experience of Flow)
內在動機(intrinsic motivation)
動機和情緒( Motivation and Emotion )
私我意識(private self-consciousness)
自我意識 (self-consciousness)
公眾性自我意識(Public Self-Consciousness)
社會助長(Social Facilitation)
社會性助益(social facilitation)
社會性干擾(social interference)
社交促進的效應(social facilitation)
社會助益效果(social facilitation effect)
社會抑制效果(social inhibition effect)
內省(introspection)
自我知覺(self-perception)
自尊(self-esteem)
自我覺察(self-awareness)
公我意識(public self-consciousness)
自利式認知(self-serving cognitions)
自我設限(self-handicapping)
利用他人的榮耀(basking in the glory of others)
向下社會比較(downward social comparisons)
向上比較(upward comparison)
自我彰顯(self-enhancement)
正向錯覺(positive illusion)
比較效應(the comparison effect)
向下社會比較(downward social comparison)
向上社會比較(upward social comparison)
妄想(delusion)
牢固的信念( Fixed Beliefs )
素質-壓力模式(diathesis-stress model)
「先置性素質-壓力模式」(diathesis-stress model)
體質壓力模式(diathesis-stress model)
生物心理社會模式(biopsychosocial model)
精神科藥物治療Psychiatric Medication
強制拘禁(Involuntary Commitment)
「廣泛的性格傾向」(broad predisposition)
素質(predisposition)
先天傾向(predisposition)
互動作用(interplay)
誘發事件(the precipitating events)
晚發妄想性精神病 Paraphrenia
「生理心理社會」(biopsychosocial)
生物醫學模式(biomedical model)
疾病過程(disease process)
臨床社會工作(clinical social work)
激動不安(agitation)
激動(agitation)
前導因子(Predisposing factors)
雙極性疾患(bipolar disorder)
躁鬱症(manic depressive disorder)
雙極性情感疾患 bipolar affective disorder
社會復健(social rehabilitation)
強制住院與治療﹝involuntary hospitalization
器質性(Organic cause)
器質性病因(organic cause)
神經缺損(Neurological Deficit)
心理力量(psychological forces)
潛意識動機(unconscious motivation)
前意識(preconscious)
下意識(subconscious)
潛意識(unconscious)
轉化症(conversion disorder)

http://dict.tw/index.pl

Our fellow creatures, filling us with disgust

By Natalie Angier (The New York Times)

There are some animals that are, by our standards, ugly.

Now, a few researchers are attempting to understand why we find certain animals unsightly even when they don’t threaten us with venom or compete for our food.

Among the all-star uglies are the star-nosed mole, whose face, said Nancy Kanwisher, a neuroscientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, “is disturbing because it looks like the animal has no face.” The blobfish, by contrast, is practically all face – a pale, gelatinous deep-sea creature whose large-lipped, sad expression seems to be melting.

“It looks like if you handled it,” said Geoffrey Miller, an evolutionary psychologist at the University of New Mexico, “at the very least you’d get some kind of rash.”

As scientists see it, a comparative consideration of what we find freakish or unsettling in other species offers a fresh perspective on how we extract large amounts of visual information from a glance, and then anthropomorphize that assessment into a revealing saga of ourselves.

“No one would find the star-nosed mole ugly if its star were iridescent blue,” said Denis Dutton, professor of the philosophy of art at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand. “But the resemblance of the pinkish nose to human flesh subverts our expectations and becomes a perverse violation of whatever values we have about what constitutes normal or healthy human skin.”

We have the male proboscis monkey and the male elephant seal, with their pendulous, vaguely salacious noses, and the woolly bat and the vampire bat, their squashed snub noses accentuating their razor-toothed gapes. The warthog’s trapezoidal skull is straight out of Picasso’s “Guernica,” while in the warthog’s kin, the babirusa, one of its two pairs of curving tusks will grow up and around and pierce its skull.

And of our own creation are the purebred cats and dogs that are stump-limbed, hairless and wrinkled, with buggy eyes and concave snouts, and ears as big as a jackrabbit’s. We love them, not in spite of their ugliness, but because of it.

Conservation researchers argue that only by being aware of our aesthetic prejudices can we set them aside when deciding which species cry out to be studied and saved. Reporting recently in the journal Conservation Biology, Morgan J. Trimble, a research fellow at the University of Pretoria in South Africa, and her colleagues uncovered evidence that scientists, like the rest of us, may be biased toward the beautiful.

Assessing the publication database of scientific literature for the years 1994 through 2008, the researchers found 1,855 papers about chimpanzees, 1,241 on leopards and 562 about lions – but only 14 for the African manatee.

Speculating on a possible reason for the disparity, Ms. Trimble said, “Most scientists are in it for the love of what they do, and a lot of them are interested in big, furry cute things.”

Or little cute things. Humans and other mammals seem to have an innate attraction to infant cues like large, wide-set eyes, a button nose and a mouth set low in the face, and the universality of these cues explains why mother dogs have been known to nurse kittens, lionesses to take care of antelope kids.

On a first pass, then, “ugliness would be the deviation from these qualities,” said David Perrett, an evolutionary psychologist at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland. A baby grows into a healthy, fertile youth, which in humans is visually characterized by clarity of shape and sleekness of form, said Wendy Steiner of the University of Pennsylvania. “An animal with saggy skin, whiskers and no neck will look like some old guy who’s lost it,” she joked.

The more readily we can analogize between a particular animal body part and our own, the more likely we are to cry ugly. “We may not find an elephant’s trunk ugly because it’s so remote,” Dr. Dutton said. “But the proboscis on a proboscis monkey is close enough to our own that we apply human standards to it.”

People are also keenly, even obsessively vigilant for signs of ill health in others. “That means anything that looks seriously asymmetrical when it should be symmetrical, that looks rough and irregular when it should be smooth, that looks like there might be parasites on the skin or worms under the skin, jaundice or pallor,” Dr. Miller said.

We distinguish between the signs of an acquired illness and those of an innate abnormality. Splotches, bumps and greasy verdigris skin mean “possibly infectious illness,” while asymmetry and exaggerated, stunted or incomplete features hint of a congenital problem.

“Deformities provide a lot of information about what can go wrong, and by contrast what good function is,” Dr. Miller said. “This is not just about physical deformities. People who seem crazy are also highly attention-grabbing.”

On the other hand, a taste for the difficult, the unconventional, the ugly has often been seen as a mark of sophistication, a passport into the rarefied world of the artistic vanguard.

“Beauty,” Dr. Steiner said, “can be present by its violation.”

The New York Times

unsightly
KK [ʌnˋsaɪtlɪ], DJ [ʌnˋsaitli]
不悅目的, 難看的

venom
KK [ˋvɛnəm], DJ [ˋvenəm]
1. (蛇、蜘蛛等的)毒液

mole1
KK [mol], DJ [məul]
1. 鼴鼠, 錢鼠

星鼻鼴 (Star-nosed Mole)

neuro- 表示”神經”; “神經系統”
neuroscience【醫】神經科學

Massachusetts
KK [͵mæsəˋtʃusɪts], DJ [͵mæsəˋtʃu:sits]
美國麻薩諸塞州

blob
KK [blɑb], DJ [blɔb]
1. 一滴; 一團; 一點; 一抹

水滴魚 (Blobfish)

gelatinous
KK [dʒəˋlætənəs], DJ [dʒiˋlætinəs]
凝膠狀的

發展心理學 (developmental psychology)
演化心理學 (evolutionary psychology)

freakish
KK [ˋfrikɪʃ], DJ [ˋfri:kiʃ]
奇特的; 怪異的

unsettling
KK [ʌnˋsɛt!ɪŋ], DJ [ˋʌnˋsetliŋ]
擾亂的; 使人不安的

anthropomorphize
KK [͵ænθrəpəˋmɔrfaɪz], DJ [͵ænθrəpəˋmɔ:faiz]
擬人化

anthropomorphism
KK [͵ænθrəpəˋmɔrfɪzəm], DJ [͵ænθrəpəˋmɔ:fizəm]
擬人化

擬人化 (anthropomorphism) 人們常因為不瞭解動物的行為表現或肢體語言,而將動物的表現加以擬人化的詮釋,這樣擬人化的解釋雖然不見得適當,但卻因此展開了雙向的溝通,進而形成連結的關係。將生物與非生物模擬成人類的行動、信念、感受,所展現出的行為越多,我們就越易於將它擬人化。動物權利提倡者將人的思考模式帶入動物世界,以擬人的觀點將人與動物之間的差異縮小,若人能視動物為地位平等的物種,那麼人對於屠殺動物以及非人道的動物實驗會有不一樣的觀點。

saga
KK [ˋsɑgə], DJ [ˋsɑ:gə]
1. 傳說; 英雄事蹟

iridescent
KK [ɪrɪˋdɛsənt], DJ [ˋiriˋdesnt]
1. 彩虹色的; 【氣】虹彩的

iridescence
KK [ɪrəˋdɛsns], DJ [͵iriˋdesns]
1. 彩虹色; 【氣】虹彩

Aesthetics 美學
Philosophy of Art 藝術哲學

subvert
KK [səbˋvɝt], DJ [sʌbˋvə:t]
推翻; 破壞

perverse
KK [pɚˋvɝs], DJ [pəˋvə:s]
故意作對的, 違反常情的

proboscis
KK [prəˋbɑsɪs], DJ [prəˋbɔsis]
1. 象鼻

長鼻猴 (Proboscis Monkey)
象鼻海豹 (elephant seal) 又叫海象

pendulous
KK [ˋpɛndʒələs], DJ [ˋpendjuləs]
1. 下垂的

vaguely
KK [ˋveglɪ], DJ [ˋveigli]
1. 不清晰地; 含糊地; 模糊地

salacious
KK [səˋleʃəs], DJ [səˋleiʃəs]
好色的; 猥褻的

彩蝠 (woolly bat)
吸血蝙蝠 (vampire bat)

snub-nosed
KK [ˋsnʌbˋnozd], DJ [ˋsnʌbnəuzd]
鼻子扁平的, 鼻子塌的

squashed
KK [skwɑʃt], DJ [skwɔʃt]
壓碎的; 壓扁的

squash1
KK [skwɑʃ], DJ [skwɔʃ]
1. 把…壓扁(壓碎); 擠壓

snub
KK [snʌb], DJ [snʌb]
掐滅(香煙等)[(+out)]

accentuate
KK [ækˋsɛntʃu͵et], DJ [ækˋsentʃueit]
1. 以重音讀出; 加重音符號於
2. 強調; 使更突出

razor-sharp
KK [ˋrezɚʃɑrp], DJ [ˋreizəʃɑ:p]
1. (剃刀般)鋒利的, 銳利的

razor-sharp
KK [ˋrezɚʃɑrp], DJ [ˋreizəʃɑ:p]
1. (剃刀般)鋒利的, 銳利的

razor-toothed gapes 齜牙咧嘴

gape
KK [gep], DJ [geip]
裂縫; 豁口

trapezoid
KK [ˋtræpə͵zɔɪd], DJ [ˋtræpizɔid]
【美】【數】梯形

babirusa
KK [͵bæbɪˋrusə], DJ [͵bæbiˋru:sə]
鹿豬 (一種東印度群島野豬)

tusk
KK [tʌsk], DJ [tʌsk]
1. (象、野豬等的)長牙, 獠牙

purebred
KK [ˋpjʊr͵brɛd], DJ [ˋpjuə͵bred]
純血統的

bug-eyed
KK [ˋbʌg͵aɪd], DJ [ˋbʌgaid]
【俚】兩眼凸出的; 因驚奇而睜大眼睛的

protrude
KK [proˋtrud], DJ [prəˋtru:d]
使伸出, 使突出

concave
KK [ˋkɑnkev], DJ [ˋkɔnˋkeiv]
凹的, 凹面的

snout
KK [snaʊt], DJ [snaut]
1. (動物的)口鼻部; 豬嘴

jackrabbit
KK [ˋdʒæk͵ræbɪt], DJ [ˋdʒæk͵ræbit]
(北美西部產)長耳大野兔

pug
KK [pʌg], DJ [pʌg]
1. 哈巴狗

aesthetic
KK [ɛsˋθɛtɪk], DJ [i:sˋθetik]
1. 美學的

publication
KK [͵pʌblɪˋkeʃən], DJ [͵pʌbliˋkeiʃən]
1. 出版; 發行[U]

manatee
KK [͵mænəˋti], DJ [͵mænəˋti:]
【動】海牛

speculate
KK [ˋspɛkjə͵let], DJ [ˋspekjuleit]
1. 思索; 沈思; 推測(+on)

disparity
KK [dɪsˋpærətɪ], DJ [disˋpæriti]
不同; 不等

parity
KK [ˋpærətɪ], DJ [ˋpæriti]
1. 同等; 類似; 相同

innate
KK [ˋɪnˋet], DJ [ˋinˋeit]
1. 與生俱來的; 天生的; 固有的

Innate Attraction 先天吸引力

wide-set eyes 眼距寬

lioness
KK [ˋlaɪənɪs], DJ [ˋlaiənis]
母獅[C]

antelope
KK [ˋænt!op], DJ [ˋænti͵ləup]
1. 羚羊[C]

deviation
KK [͵divɪˋeʃən], DJ [͵di:viˋeiʃən]
1. 越軌; 偏向
2. 誤差; 偏航

pass
KK [pæs], DJ [pɑ:s]
山隘; 關口; 海峽[C]
困境, 難關[S]

sleekness
KK [ˋsliknɪs], DJ [ˋsli:knis]
線條明快, 造型優美
油滑, 圓滑

saggy
KK [ˋsægɪ], DJ [ˋsægi]
鬆懈的; 下垂的

sag
KK [sæg], DJ [sæg]
v. 下陷; 下彎; 下垂

whisker
KK [ˋhwɪskɚ], DJ [ˋhwiskə]
(動物的)鬚

analogize
KK [əˋnælə͵dʒaɪz], DJ [əˋnælədʒaiz]
類推

vigilant
KK [ˋvɪdʒələnt], DJ [ˋvidʒilənt]
警戒的; 警惕的

asymmetrical
KK [͵esɪˋmɛtrɪk!], DJ [͵eisiˋmetrikl]
1. 不均勻的
【數】非對稱的

symmetrical
KK [sɪˋmɛtrɪk!], DJ [siˋmetrikəl]
1. 對稱的
2. 勻稱的; 整齊的

parasite
KK [ˋpærə͵saɪt], DJ [ˋpærəsait]
1. 寄生生物

jaundice
KK [ˋdʒɔndɪs], DJ [ˋdʒɔ:ndis]
1. 【醫】黃疸; 黃疸病

pallor
KK [ˋpælɚ], DJ [ˋpælə]
(臉色等的)蒼白, 灰白[U]

abnormality
KK [͵æbnɔrˋmælətɪ], DJ [͵æbnɔ:ˋmæliti]
1. 反常, 異常; 變態; 畸形

splotch
KK [splɑtʃ], DJ [splɔtʃ]
污點

verdigris
KK [ˋvɝdɪ͵gris], DJ [ˋvə:digri:s]
銅綠; 銅鏽

stunted
KK [ˋstʌntɪd], DJ [ˋstʌntid]
1. (發育、生長等)受妨礙的; 發育不良的

stunt
KK [stʌnt], DJ [stʌnt]
1. 阻礙…的發育(或生長)

incomplete
KK [͵ɪnkəmˋplit], DJ [͵inkəmˋpli:t]
1. 不完全的, 不完整的

congenital
KK [kənˋdʒɛnət!], DJ [kənˋdʒenitl]
天生的; 先天的

deformity
KK [dɪˋfɔrmətɪ], DJ [diˋfɔ:miti]
1. 畸形狀態[U]

vanguard
KK [ˋvæn͵gɑrd], DJ [ˋvængɑ:d]
先鋒; 前鋒; 先頭部隊; 先導

Hypomania

I like her being in the hypomanic state. She was so energetic, euphoric, charismatic, and had so much self-confidence and the ability to improvise easily because she could handle any situation that confronted her.
She was afraid of nothing, so she drove recklessly, climbed onto a roof, and dived from a rock. She was immune to fear and doubt and had little social inhibition. She talked to strangers easily, offered solutions to problems, and found pleasure in small activities, so she was very jolly to be with.
However, she might quickly become very impatient or unpleasant if she could not get what she want, so I know she was not only with hyperthymic temperament.

But to be frank, I miss who she was so much.

my affection

I know there is no Mr. right in perfection.
I am not qualified to be a Miss right as well;
however, I just desire one to 
be patient with me,
have identification with
me, and 
treat me tenderly
.

It seems easy but there is no such person,
so I just have to keep going alone.

LOMO Diana F+
Fuji Provia 100F 120

I need no drug

I can see your estra−1,3,5 (10),16−tetraen−3−ol dyeing your hoodies with no drug. I can hear you blinking with no drug. I can smell you playing volley-ball in the bright sunlight with no drug. I can taste your happy memories of childhood with no drug.

No drugs, no withdrawal symptoms.